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dc.contributor.advisorRincón Prat, Sonia Lucia
dc.contributor.authorAlvarez Alvarez, Oscar Fernando
dc.date.accessioned2021-04-06T18:39:15Z
dc.date.available2021-04-06T18:39:15Z
dc.date.issued2020
dc.identifier.urihttps://repositorio.unal.edu.co/handle/unal/79381
dc.description.abstractEl cuesco de palma de aceite (CPA) es un residuo del proceso de extracción de aceite de palma, que tiene características adecuadas para la producción de carbón activado (CA). Colombia ocupa el cuarto lugar en el mundo en producción de aceite de palma y se estima que en 2019 la cantidad producida de CPA fue de aproximadamente 336.000 ton por año. Dentro de los contaminantes de las aguas superficiales, el pesticida Paraquat se identifica como uno de los más peligrosos para la salud humana y es el más utilizado en la agricultura en Colombia. Se encuentra en todo el mundo en aguas naturales en el rango de 50 µg/l a 5000 µg /l. El CPA se carbonizó primero en un horno horizontal bajo atmósfera de N2 hasta 850 ºC durante 30 min. Después de eso, tres lotes, cada uno de 300 g de carbonizado de CPA se activaron en el mismo reactor horizontal por medio de gasificación parcial usando H2O como agente de reacción. El proceso de activación comienza con una etapa de calentamiento elevando la temperatura de 20 ºC a 850 ºC en aproximadamente 280 min bajo un flujo de 0,481 l/min N2 en condiciones estándar. Posteriormente, en la etapa de activación, el flujo de N2 se suspende y se reemplaza por un flujo de vapor de agua a 20,68 l/min mientras se mantiene la temperatura a 850 ± 10 ºC durante 310 min. Finalmente, el flujo de vapor de agua se cambia a N2 y el horno se enfría hasta temperatura ambiente. Como resultado del proceso de activación, se obtuvo un carbón activado (CA-CPA) con aproximadamente un 50% de grado de activación y un área superficial de 1200 m2/g. El carbón activado se caracteriza por medio de la determinación del pH, el contenido de agua soluble, el contenido de ácido extraíble, índice de yodo, índice de azul de metileno, adsorción de fenol, área de superficie BET de adsorción de N2 y densidad. La capacidad de adsorción del CA-CPA de paraquat diluido en agua se estudia midiendo curvas de ruptura en una columna de adsorción utilizando concentraciones iniciales de paraquat entre 600 µg/l y 5000 µg/l. Se realiza una comparación utilizando un carbón activado comercial (CAC) referencia Hydraffin de la compañía Donau Carbon. La determinación de la concentración de paraquat en el agua se realiza por voltamperometría.
dc.description.abstractOil Palm Kernel Shell (OPKS) is a residue of the palm oil extraction process, which has good characteristics for the production of activated carbon (AC). Colombia ranks fourth in the world in palm oil production and it is estimated that in 2019 the amount produced of OPKS was approximately 336.000 ton per year. Within the contaminants of surface waters, the pesticide paraquat is identified as one of the most dangerous for human health and most used in agriculture in Colombia. It is found worldwide in natural waters in the range of 50 µg/l to 5000 µg/l. Oil palm kernel shells were first carbonized in a horizontal oven under N2 atmosphere until 850 ºC for 30 min. After that, three batches, each of 300 g of the carbonized OPKS (COPKS) were activated in the same horizontal reactor by means of partial gasification using H2O as reaction agent. The activation process starts with a heating stage by raising the temperature from 20 ºC to 850 ºC in approximately 280 minutes under a flow of 481 ml/min N2 at standard conditions. Subsequently in the activation stage the flow of N2 is suspended and replaced by a flow of 20,68 l/min steam while maintaining the temperature at 850 ± 10 ºC for another 310 minutes. Finally the flow of steam is changed to N2 and the oven is cooled down until ambient temperature. As a result of the activation process, an activated carbon (AC-OPKS) with approximately 50% degree of activation and a surface area of 1200 m2/g were obtained. The activated carbon is characterized by means of determination of pH, soluble water content, extractable acid content, iodine number, methylene blue index, phenol adsorption, BET surface area from N2 adsorption and density. The adsorption capacity of the AC-OPKS towards paraquat is studied by measuring breakthrough curves in an adsorption column using initial concentrations of Paraquat between 600 µg/l and 5000 µg/l. A comparison is performed by using a commercial activated carbon CO-AC from the company Donau Carbon ref. Hydraffin. The determination of the concentration of paraquat in water is made by voltammetry.
dc.format.extent1 recurso en línea (115 páginas)
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.language.isospa
dc.publisherUniversidad Nacional de Colombia
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
dc.subject.ddc600 - Tecnología (Ciencias aplicadas)
dc.titleRemoción de paraquat diluido en agua mediante carbón activado de cuesco de palma de aceite
dc.typeTrabajo de grado - Maestría
dc.type.driverinfo:eu-repo/semantics/masterThesis
dc.type.versioninfo:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion
dc.contributor.researchgroupBiomasa y Optimización Térmica de Procesos - BIOT
dc.description.degreelevelMaestría
dc.description.methodsInvestigación en el uso de biomasa como fuente renovable de energía a través de su procesamiento termoquímico. Específicamente por medio de pirólisis y gasificación - Disminución de emisión de gases contaminantes. - Optimización térmica de procesos
dc.description.programBogotá - Ingeniería - Maestría en Ingeniería - Ingeniería Mecánica
dc.description.researchareaTérmica, fluidos y medio ambiente
dc.identifier.instnameUniversidad Nacional de Colombia
dc.identifier.reponameRepositorio Institucional UN
dc.identifier.repourlhttps://repositorio.unal.edu.co/
dc.publisher.facultyFacultad de Ingeniería
dc.publisher.placeBogotá
dc.publisher.branchUniversidad Nacional de Colombia - Sede Bogotá
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dc.rights.accessrightsinfo:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.subject.agrovocActivated carbon
dc.subject.agrovocParaquat
dc.subject.agrovocCarbón activado
dc.subject.ocdeAceite de palma
dc.subject.ocdePALM OIL
dc.subject.proposalCarbón activado
dc.subject.proposalCuesco de palma
dc.subject.proposalCurvas de ruptura
dc.subject.proposalParaquat
dc.subject.proposalLimpieza de agua
dc.subject.proposalActivated carbon
dc.subject.proposalOil palm kernel shell
dc.subject.proposalParaquat
dc.subject.proposalBreakthrough curves
dc.subject.proposalWater treatment
dc.subject.unescoAceite vegetal
dc.subject.unescoVegetable oils
dc.type.coarhttp://purl.org/coar/resource_type/c_bdcc
dc.type.coarversionhttp://purl.org/coar/version/c_ab4af688f83e57aa
dc.type.contentText
dc.type.redcolhttp://purl.org/redcol/resource_type/TM
oaire.accessrightshttp://purl.org/coar/access_right/c_abf2
oaire.fundernameGrupo de Investigación en Biomasa y Optimización Térmica de Procesos - BIOT de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia


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