Evaluación de estrategias de manejo biológico y acaricidas biorracionales en el control de los ácaros Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead) (Acari: Eriophyidae) Y Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) (Acari: Tarsonemidae) causales del manchado de frutos en naranja valencia
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En la zona Sur Occidental de Colombia, los ácaros P. Latus y P. oleivora, son los responsables de la deformación y el manchado en frutos de naranja Valencia. Con el interés de evaluar el efecto de acaricidas biorracionales sobre estas plagas, se desarrolló este trabajo en un cultivo en producción, en Caicedonia, Valle del Cauca, bajo un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones y los tratamientos: abamectina (1.5 cc/l); Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (de 2 cc/l); aceite agrícola (3 cc/l) y testigo absoluto (Agua).//Abstract: In the South West of Colombia, mites P. latus and P. oleivora are responsible for the deformation and spotting in Valencia oranges. Aiming to evaluate the effect of biorational miticides on these pests, this work was developed in a crop production in Caicedonia, Valle del Cauca, under a random complete block design with four replications and treatments: abamectin (1.5 cc / l), Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (2 ml / l), agricultural oil (3 ml / l) and absolute control (water). The results showed significant differences between treatments regarding damage caused by P. latus. Being abacmetina and agricultural oil treatments in the ones in which less damage occurred. For P. oleivora significant differences between treatments, treatment with agricultural oil had the lowest fruit damage. In addition, biological control strategies were evaluated in the same area, under a design of a randomized complete block with 3 replications and the following 4 treatments: exclusion of predators - localized application of cypermethrin (2cc / l); release: Neoseiulus anonimus, N . californicus, Iphiseiodes zuluagai and Amblyseius herbicolus (500 individuals / tree); release of Chrysoperla carnea (100 larvae / fruit) and control farmer: localized application of abamectin (1.5 cc / l). The Treatment C. carnea, abamectin have good control of P. latus, presenting minor damage, followed by the release of Phytoseiidae and further damage in the exclusion treatment. For P. oleivora significant differences were observed in the evaluated treatments. The release of C. carnea and abamectin had the least damage. The greatest damage was observed in the release of Phytoseiidae treatment and exclusion. Apparently released phytoseiid exercised little control over the rust mite. In addition to loss of fruit caused by P. latus, were lost fungal fruit and natural loss. In addition we determined the ability of predation and consumption of three species of Phytoseiidae (Phytoseiulus fragari, Typholodromalus aripo and Amblyseius sp.) And Chrysoperla carnea on P. latus, under laboratory conditions using a completely randomized design with four treatments and ten repetitions. Treatments consisted of supplying a Phytoseiidae predatory adult and larvae of C. carnea, 60 prey individuals from different states of P. latus: 20 eggs, 20 larvae and 20 adults in plastic vials. Predators used ate the egg, larva and adult of P. latus, showing a higher consumption of eggs and larvae and to a lesser proportion of adults. P. fragari showed preference for the egg and larva, Amblyseius sp. adults preferred to consume while T. aripo preferred eggs. C. carnea showed a preference for eggs. These results provided some guidelines for developing a program of studies in integrated management of mites.