Aportes jurídicos para una renovación de la Carrera Administrativa en Colombia
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El Estado Colombiano es el mayor empleador, siendo los cargos de las entidades públicas los empleos más buscados por los ciudadanos en todos los niveles en atención a la llamada estabilidad laboral. La regulación del acceso y permanencia en empleo público se encuentra en “Ley 909 del 2004”, que reglamenta la carrera administrativa y el funcionamiento de la Comisión Nacional del Servicio Civil (CNSC), como ente que regula y supervisa el ingreso y movilidad dentro del servicio público. Para ingresar a la carrera administrativa la CNSC debe planear, ejecutar y evaluar los concursos públicos, función que no ha cumplido con la celeridad y eficiencia del servicio público, permitiendo la continuidad de las costumbres politiqueras de quienes ostentan el poder. El nombramiento provisional y los encargos han sido mal utilizados. Los procesos de reestructuración, fusión y eliminación de las entidades públicas, para cumplir con las exigencias de los organismos internacionales en asuntos financieros y políticos, han llevado al lastre los derechos al trabajo y la seguridad social. Varios han sido los intentos de la clase política, para legitimar los equivocados procedimientos actos que en buena hora la Corte Constitucional en cumplimiento de su función guardiana de la Constitución Política, ha dejado sin efecto. En Sentencia C-588 de 2009, se reiteró la vigencia de la carrera administrativa como la única forma legal de acceder a los cargos públicos, sin embargo, el Congreso de la República continua insistiendo, a través de varios actos legislativos, con el reconocimiento de derechos por encima de los demás ciudadanos que se encuentran en situaciones de encargos y nombramientos provisionales. / Abstract. Speaking of public employment in Colombia, is not to try a legal issue – administrative among others, directly or indirectly, the state is the largest employer in the country and, therefore, in this type of employment, without exaggeration, it is put at stake, social peace, the public perception of justice as well as the quality of life and the welfare of much of the Colombian population. In a society like ours, in which the deterioration of working conditions is increasing, where the professional life has ceased to be, for a good portion of the population, a hope of wealth, in which the real unemployment is sub - registered, and the underemployment or the precarious employment "relieve" the conscience and government statistics, having a stable public employment, decently paid and of quality, has become the main attraction and the target for thousands of Colombians that dream of a better tomorrow for themselves and for theirs. Many of these desires were collected and expressed normatively in the "Law 909 of 2004," which regulates the civil service, a claim that is coupled with the entry into operation of the National Civil Service Commission (CNSC), the entity that regulates and monitors the entry and mobility within the public service. Today, early in the second decade of the century, more than five years of entry into efficacy of these rules and institutions, and with the ostensible slowness, or rather inability, of the entrance examinations to the public sector, we face to the survival of the eternal state employment services, such as political contributions, the "payment for favors", corruption, creation, without any planning or sense of duties and functions to justify institutional charges, or the familiar "parallel payrolls, " for which there is a large debate. In this sense, it is clear that the provisional nominations and orders for longer than prescribed by law, bring along the violation of the principle of legal security that the administration must ensure that citizens have should have, likewise, the state has restructured, deleted, merged, public entities, to meet the demands of international financial and political matters, regardless of the right to work and social security of the population. In this issue, the Constitutional Court in ruling C-588, 2009, has defended the validity of the administrative career as the only legal form of access to public office, however, Congress has insisted, through legislation, to recognize the provisional workers rights over other citizens. It is at this stage on which this research aims to target a panoramic review of public employment in Colombia, analyzing its legal- conceptual bases, proposing from there, a list of basic recommendations that can improve the administrative career in the country, understood as an appropriate instrument to ensure fair and democratic right to work, on equal terms to all Colombians who have the knowledge, skills and profiles to hold certain posts in the State. In furtherance of this objective, the paper is divided into three chapters that seek, as a whole, assuming a hermeneutic understanding of the law, ie a vision of law, taking as background the need to articulate the legitimacy, validity and the effectiveness of the rules, deals to highlight the interpretive character of the rules and principles by linking legal texts with problematic contexts, in order to propose viable solutions to the socio- legal problems. With this claim, a first chapter focuses on the Origin of public employment in Colombia and the administrative career development, highlighting the appropriateness of the latter to ensure equality, democracy and quality of public employment; in a second chapter it is analyzed the structure and functions of the national Civil Service Commission, assessing their development in relation to the objectives that motivated its creation; and in a third chapter it is analyzed the legislative acts that have tried to dismiss the administrative career objectives, ending with a conclusion that seek to clarify the problematic points of the issue and set benchmarks, both political and legal, for their solution, emphasizing the importance of strengthening the civil service and the bodies responsible for promotion and administration. From a legal- political perspective, it is understood how one of the conceptual discussions that explain the crisis of the administrative career in Colombia, is the one between the welfare state model, proposed by the Charter of 1991, and public policies type neo- liberal, that have led the so called "institutional reforms" or the elimination of public institutions, national governments since the late 80s, which are well founded, paradoxically, in some sections of the Constitution itself.
- Departamento de Derecho